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ABSTRACT

In the compound of the formula (I), where: R1, R2 are each independently, for example, H or a straight-chain or branched alkyl radical p, q are each independently 0 or 1, i.e. at the value zero, —H is present at the appropriate position instead of —F M1 is —CO—O—, —O—CO—, —CH2—O—, —O—CH2—, —CF2—O—, —O—CF2—, —CH═CH—, —CF═CF—, —C≡C—, —CH2—CH2—CO——O—, —O—CO—CH2—CH2—, —CH2—CH2—, —CF2—CF2—, —(CH2)4—, —OC(═O)CF═CF— or a single bond A1 is, for example, 1,4-phenylene R5 has the same possible definitions as specified for R1 and R2, with the exception of —M1—A1—R5, but independently of the definition of R1 and R2 X is H, F, OF3, CF3, OCF2H with the following provisos: a) at least one of p, q has to be 1 b) R1 and R2 must not at the same time be H c) R2 and X must not at the same time be H.

Inventors: Wolfgang Schmidt, Rainer Wingen Barbara Hornung
Original Assignee: Merck Patent GmbH
Section: Chemistry; Metallurgy
Classification: Dyes; Paints; Polishes; Natural Resins; Adhesives; Compositions Not Otherwise Provided For; Applications Of Materials Not Otherwise Provided For

This application claims priority to German Patent Application No. 10 2004 021 691.6, filed Apr. 30, 2004.

An ever-increasing number of applications of LCDs, for example for use in automobiles, in which a temperature range of from −40° C. to 100° C. can quite possibly exist, but also portable units such as cellphones and notebook PCs, requires liquid-crystal mixtures which have firstly a very wide working temperature range and secondly a minimum threshold voltage.

There is therefore a continuing demand for novel, suitable liquid-crystal mixtures and mixture components. As described in Ichinose et al. (IDW'00, Abstr. LCT4-3) or in DE-A 100 50 071, materials are being sought in which there is coexistence of high optical anisotropy (Δn) and low rotational viscosity, although other parameters such as high absolute values of dielectric anisotropy (Δε) are likewise preferentially required, in addition to further parameters relevant to the application.

Fluorinated dibenzofurans are known from WO 02/055463. In JP 10 236992, it is also possible to derive in a formal sense from the general formula specified there, among a multitude of other possibilities, a 3,7-disubstituted 1,2,8,9-tetrafluorodibenzofuran derivative, but the application does not consider the synthesis or physical properties of corresponding compounds.

1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorodibenzofuran and 1,2,4-trifluorodibenzofuran are known, for example, from Tetrahedron 1967, 23, 4041. However, suitability of these molecules or derivatives thereof as part of a component of liquid-crystal mixtures cannot be discerned therefrom.

Since the manufacturers of liquid-crystal displays have a constant interest in improved liquid-crystal mixtures, there is still a need for further components of liquid-crystal mixtures, with which individual parameters relevant to the application, for example the dielectric anisotropy (Δε) or the optical anisotropy (Δn), may be optimized.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide novel components for use in nematic or cholesteric or chiral-smectic liquid-crystal mixtures which have high absolute values of dielectric anisotropy combined with a favorable ratio of viscosity to clearing point. In addition, the compounds should to a high degree preferably be light- and UV-stable, and also thermally stable. In addition, they should preferably be suitable for realizing a high voltage holding ratio (VHR). In addition, they should have good synthetic accessibility and therefore potentially be inexpensive.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING


FIG. 1 shows the τVmin curve (τ˜plotted against the voltage) at Tc−30K, monopolar pulses and a cell separation of 1.3 μm.

According to the invention, these objects are achieved by compounds of the formula (I)

where:

R1, R2 are each independently

a) H

b) a straight-chain or branched alkyl radical having from 1 to 16 carbon atoms or a straight-chain or branched alkenyl radical having from 2 to 16 carbon atoms, in which

b1) one or more nonadjacent and nonterminal CH2 groups may be replaced by —O—, —C(═O)O—, —O—C(═O)—, —O—C(═O)—O—, —C(═O)— or —Si(CH3)2— and/or

b2) one CH2 group may be replaced by —C≡C—, cyclopropane-1,2-diyl, cyclobutane-1,3-diyl, cyclohexane-1,4-diyl or phenylene-1,4-diyl and/or

b3) one or more hydrogen atoms may be replaced by F and/or Cl

c) —M1—A1—R5

p, q are each independently 0 or 1, i.e. at the value zero, —H is present at the appropriate position instead of —F

M1 is —CO—O—, —O—CO—, —CH2—O—, —O—CH2—, —CF2—O—, —O—CF2—, —CH═CH—, —CF═CF—, —C≡C—, —CH2—CH2—CO—O—, —O—CO—CH2—CH2—, —CH2—CH2—, —CF2—CF2—, —(CH2)4—, —OC(═O)CF═CF— or a single bond

A1 is 1,4-phenylene in which one or two hydrogen atoms may be replaced by F, Cl, CN and/or OCF3 or three hydrogen atoms may be replaced by fluorine, 1,4-cyclohexylene in which one or two hydrogen atoms may be replaced by CH3 and/or F, 1-cyclohexene-1,4-diyl in which one hydrogen atom may be replaced by CH3 or F, pyrimidine-2,5-diyl, pyridine-2,5-diyl or 1,3-dioxane-2,5-diyl

R5 has the same possible definitions as specified for R1 and R2, with the exception of —M1—A1—R5, but independently of the definition of R1 and R2

X is H, F, OCF3, CF3, OCF2H

with the following provisos:

a) at least one of p, q has to be 1

b) R1 and R2 must not at the same time be H

c) R2 and X must not at the same time be H, and by liquid-crystal mixtures comprising these compounds.

Preference is given to compounds of the formulae (Ia) to (Id)

in which:

R11 and R12 are each independently an alkyl or alkyloxy radical having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms or an alkenyl or alkenyloxy radical having from 2 to 10 carbon atoms, in which in each case one or more hydrogen atoms may also be replaced by F, or the R15—A15—M15—moiety,

with the proviso that:

R11 and R12 must not at the same time be R15—A15—M15,

R15 is an alkyl or alkyloxy radical having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms or an alkenyl or alkenyloxy radical having from 2 to 10 carbon atoms

A15 is phenylene-1,4-diyl, cyclohexane-1,4-diyl

M15 is a single bond, —CO—O—, —O—CO—, —C≡C—, —OCF2—, —CF2O—, —CF2CF2—, —CH2CH2—.

Particular preference, especially for use in nematic mixtures, is given to the compounds of the formulae (Ia1), (Ia2) and (Ia3)

in which:

R21 and R22 are each independently an alkyl or alkoxy radical having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms or an alkenyl or alkenyloxy radical having from 2 to 5 carbon atoms,

R23 is an alkyl or alkyloxy radical having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms or an alkenyl or alkenyloxy radical having from 2 to 5 carbon atoms,

R24 is the R15—A15—M15— moiety in which

R15 is an alkyl or alkyloxy radical having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms or an alkenyl or alkenyloxy radical having from 2 to 10 carbon atoms

A15 is phenylene-1,4-diyl, cyclohexane-1,4-diyl

M15 is a single bond or —CH2CH2—.

The provision of compounds of the formula (I) in a quite general sense considerably broadens the range of liquid-crystalline substances which are suitable for producing liquid-crystalline mixtures from different performance aspects.

In this context, the compounds of the formula (I) have a broad field of application. Depending on the selection of the substituents, they may be added to other classes of compound, in order, for example, to influence the dielectric and/or optical anisotropy of such a dielectric. They may also serve to optimize its threshold voltage and/or its viscosity. The compounds may also serve to increase the mesophase range or to adjust individual mesophases to parameters relevant to the application.

The compounds of the formula (I) are particularly suitable, even in small amounts in the mixture, for influencing the dielectric anisotropy (Δε) and/or the optical anisotropy Δn of liquid-crystal mixtures. The compounds of the formula (I) are particularly suitable, even in small amounts in the mixture, for reducing the response time of ferroelectric liquid-crystal mixtures. The compounds of the formula (I) are likewise particularly suitable for adjusting the broadness of the SC or N phase to application requirements.

The present invention thus provides compounds of the formula (I) and for the use of these compounds as components of liquid-crystalline mixtures and liquid-crystal mixtures comprising one or more compounds of the formula (I).

The compounds of the formula (I) may be used in various liquid-crystal mixtures, for example chiral-smectic, nematic or cholesteric liquid-crystal mixtures. In the case of nematic mixtures, they are particularly suitable for active matrix displays (AM-LCD) (see, for example, C. Prince, Seminar Lecture Notes, Volume I, p. M-3/3-M-22, SID International Symposium 1997, B. B. Bahadur, Liquid Crystal Applications and Uses, Vol. 1, p. 410, World Scientific Publishing, 1990, E. Lüder, Recent Progress of AMLCD's, Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference, 1995, p. 9–12) and in-plane-switching displays (IPS-LCD), and, in the case of smectic liquid-crystal mixtures, for smectic (ferroelectric or antiferroelectric) displays. Further display possibilities are the ECB and VA display mode in the case of nematic and cholesteric LC mixtures.

Further components of liquid-crystal mixtures which comprise inventive compounds of the formula (I) are preferably selected from the known compounds having smectic and/or nematic and/or cholesteric phases. Mixture components suitable in this context are listed in particular in WO 00/36054, DE-A-195 31 165 and EP-A-0 893 424, which are explicitly incorporated herein by way of reference.

The present invention also provides liquid-crystal mixtures, which comprise at least one compound of the formula (I), preferably in an amount of from 1 to 40% by weight, based on the liquid-crystal mixture. The mixtures preferably comprise at least 3 further components having smectic and/or nematic and/or cholesteric phases in addition to compounds of the formula (I). The invention additionally provides electrooptical displays (liquid-crystal displays) which comprise the inventive mixtures.

Preference is given to displays which comprise the inventive nematic or smectic (ferroelectric or antiferroelectric) mixtures in combination with active matrix elements.

The inventive displays are typically constructed in such a way that one liquid-crystal layer is enclosed on both sides by layers which are typically, in this sequence starting from the LC layer, at least one alignment layer, electrodes and a boundary layer (for example of glass). In addition, they may comprise spacers, adhesive frames, polarizers and thin color filter layers for color displays. Further possible components are antireflection, passivation, compensation and barrier layers, and also electrically nonlinear elements such as thin-film transistors (TFT) and metal-insulator-metal (MIM) elements. The construction of liquid-crystal displays has already been described in detail in relevant monographs (see, for example, E. Kaneko, “Liquid Crystal TV Displays: Principles and Applications of Liquid Crystal Displays”, KTK Scientific Publishers, 1987).

An example of a possible synthetic route to compounds of the formula (I) is specified in scheme 1 which follows, although other processes are also feasible and possible.

The following abbreviations are used:

n-BuLi n-butyllithium

DCM dichloromethane

DME dimethoxyethane

DMF N,N-dimethylformamide

DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide

KOtBu potassium tert-butoxide

LICOR lithium organyl+potassium tert-butoxide

LiTMP lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide

MEK methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone)

MTBE tert-butyl methyl ether

4-TsOH 4-toluenesulfonic acid

a) 1. LITMP according to Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 6551 2. B(OMe)3 3. H3O+ 4. H2O2 according to J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. II 1989, 2041

b) dimethyl sulfate, K2CO3, acetone

c) R1-2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid, Pd0 catalyst according to J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2 1999, 481; J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 2000, 27; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 4020; Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 6523

d) BBr3, DCM or HBr, AcOH or Ph2PLi, THF according to Synthesis 1983, 249; J. Mater. Chem. 2002, 12, 1316; Liq. Cryst 1998, 25, 1; Liq. Cryst 1998, 25, 47; Synthesis 1978, 771.

e) K2CO3/DMF according to New. J. Chem 2001, 25, 385; Synthesis 1998, 894.

The reactant E1 where R2=methyl is known from the literature [202865-83-6] and commercially available; reactants E1 where R2=alkyl can be prepared from the compound E1 where R2=CHO [188813-02-7] which is known from the literature by Wittig reaction with alkyltriphenylphosphonium halides and subsequent hydrogenation; alternatively, the commercially available compound where R2=CN [179898-34-1] may be reacted with alkylmagnesium halides and subsequently processed reductively to give the target compounds. Reactants where R2=OMe [29578-39-0] and OEt [212307-87-4] are known from the literature; higher homologs may be obtained, for example, from 3-bromo-5-fluorophenol (E1 where R2=OH) [433939-27-6] by etherification with alkyl bromides.

The further starting materials (for example R1-2,3-difluorophenylboronic acids) are familiar to those skilled in the art (for example: J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2 1999, 481; J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 2000, 27) and some are even commercially available.

The invention is illustrated in detail by the examples which follow.

EXAMPLE 1


4,6-Difluoro-2,7-dipropyldibenzofuran

[Compound (I) where p=q=1, X=H, R1=C3H7, R2=C3H7]

Under protective gas, 10.7 g of 2,3-difluoro-4-propylphenylboronic acid (prepared from 1,2-difluoro-3-propylbenzene by lithiation with n-BuLi in THF at −70° C. and subsequent reaction with trimethyl borate according to J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. II 1989, 2041), 8.9 g of anhydrous potassium fluoride and 0.64 g of tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) are initially charged, and admixed successively with a solution of 11.5 g of 2-bromo-6-fluoro-4-propylanisole (prepared by etherification of 2-bromo-6-fluoro-4-propylphenol with dimethyl sulfate and potassium carbonate in acetone; 2-bromo-6-fluoro-4-propylphenol was obtained by lithiation of 1-bromo-5-fluoro-3-propylbenzene with LITMP in THF at −70° C. and subsequent reaction with trimethyl borate, acidic workup and oxidation with H2O2 in MTBE according to Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 6551 and J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. II 1989, 2041; 1-bromo-5-fluoro-3-propylbenzene was obtained from 3-bromo-5-fluorobenzaldehyde [188813-02-7 by Wittig reaction with ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide and subsequent cat. hydrogenation) in 90 ml of dry 1,4-dioxane and 0.38 g of tri-tert-butylphosphine (dissolved in approx. 5 ml of the same solvent). The mixture is heated to boiling under vigorous stirring for 6 h. After cooling, the reaction mixture is added to water and extracted with MTBE. The org. phase is removed, washed with water and sat. sodium chloride solution, and dried over sodium sulfate, and the solvents are removed under reduced pressure. The crude product is purified by chromatography on silica gel with heptane/dichloromethane (8:2 v/v) as the eluent. The thus obtained 3,2′,3′-trifluoro-2-methoxy-5,4′-dipropylbiphenyl is heated to boiling in a mixture of 75 ml of glacial acetic acid and 65 ml of 48% aqueous hydrobromic acid overnight. After cooling, the reaction mixture is added to ice-water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic phases are washed with water and 5% sodium hydrogencarbonate solution and dried over sodium sulfate. After the solvent has been removed under reduced pressure, the black-brown residue is purified chromatographically on silica gel using 7:3 heptane/dichloromethane as the eluent. The resulting 3,2′,3′-trifluoro-5,4′-dipropylbiphenyl-2-ol is heated to 90–100° C. with 8.2 g of potassium carbonate in 270 ml of dimethylformamide for 6 h. After cooling, the reaction mixture is added to approx. 1 l of water and extracted twice with dichloromethane, and the organic phases are combined, washed twice with saturated sodium chloride solution and subsequently twice with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The brown residue which is obtained after the solvent has been distilled off is chromatographed using silica gel with toluene as the eluent. After the solvent has been removed under reduced pressure, the product-containing fractions are recrystallized from heptane. 3.2 g of 4,6-difluoro-2,7-dipropyldibenzofuran are obtained.

EXAMPLE 2


2-Butyl-4,6-difluoro-7-propyldibenzofuran

[Compound (I) where p=q=1, X=H, R1=C3H7, R2=C4H9]

Analogously to example 1, using 2-bromo-4-butyl-6-fluoroanisole instead of 2-bromo-6-fluoro-4-propylanisole, 2-butyl-4,6-difluoro-7-propyldibenzofuran is obtained.

EXAMPLE 3


7-Butyloxy-4,6-difluoro-2-propyldibenzofuran

[Compound (I) where p=q=1, X=H, R1=OC4H9, R2=C3H7]

Analogously to example 1, using 4-butyloxy-2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid (prepared from 1-butyloxy-2,3-difluorobenzene by lithiation with n-BuLi in THF at −70° C. and subsequent reaction with trimethyl borate according to J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. II 1989, 2041) instead of 2,3-difluoro-4-propylphenylboronic acid, 7-butyloxy4,6-difluoro-2-propyldibenzofuran is obtained.

USE EXAMPLE 1


A chiral-smectic C mixture consisting of

2-(4-heptyloxyphenyl)-5-nonylpyrimidine

19.6%

5-nonyl-2-(4-octyloxyphenyl)pyrimidine

19.6%

5-nonyl-2-(4-nonyloxyphenyl)pyrimidine

19.6%

2-(2,3-difluoro-4-heptyloxyphenyl)-5-nonylpyrimidine

 6.5%

2-(2,3-difluoro-4-octyloxyphenyl)-5-nonylpyrimidine

 6.5%

2-(2,3-difluoro-4-nonyloxyphenyl)-5-nonylpyrimidine

 6.5%

5-hexyloxy-2-(4-hexyloxyphenyl)pyrimidine

19.6%

(S)-4-[4′-(2-fluorooctyloxy)biphenyl-4-yl]-1-

 2.0%

heptylcyclohexanecarbonitrile

is admixed with 5% of the compound from example 1. This results in a mixture which, as demonstrated by FIG. 1, is suitable for the operation of displays in inverse mode, since the curve profile has the required minimum and the values lie within the technically relevant range.